Souframanien J, Gupta SK, Gopalakrishna Y. Schafleitner, R., Huang, Sm., Chu, Sh. Green mung bean sprouts are not the long white bean sprouts commonly used in Asian cuisine, like spring rolls and stir fry's. BLACKGRAM (URDBEAN) Botanical name: Phaseolus mungo L. Family: Fabaceae (Leguminoceae) Chromosome number: 2n=22 or 24. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Markers associated with resistance have been made available. A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. Correspondence to Hong MG, Kim KH, Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ, Park CH, et al. The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash (Persian: ماش ‎), or moong (from Sanskrit: मुद्ग, romanized: mudga), is a plant species in the legume family. The major QTL was linked to microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158. Two of these markers were dominant in population V2802 × NM94 and all three markers were highly diagnostic for bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. Hyone-Myong Eun, in Enzymology Primer for Recombinant DNA Technology, 1996. The primers of this marker map at a distance of more than 7,000 bp from each other on the VC1973 reference genome sequence, but yielded PCR fragments between 300 and 400 bp in size, indicating again rearrangement along chromosome 5 in the lines used by this study compared to VC1973. One QTL for both seed damage and number of emerging bruchids was located on chromosome 5 between markers 3:10,830,930 and 5:5,730,691 with an LOD of 41.3 and 53.1, respectively, explaining 74.8 and 82.9 % of the variation and an additive effect of −27.0 % seed damage and −8.1 emerging bruchids. Development of an interspecific Vigna linkage map between Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. [13] reported three markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92. /Height 5 Euphytica. Kashiwaba K, Tomooka N, Vaughan DA, Kaka A, Ono H, Kameyama M, et al. Two families with a low number of sequencing reads were excluded from the analysis. Both interval and inclusive composite interval mapping failed to identify modifier genes required to explain the presence of intermediate phenotypes in highly homozygote recombinant inbred lines that were produced by single seed descent. Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. London: Academic; 1978. p. 219–29. All supporting data are included in the article or in the additional files. Bruchid resistance in TC1966 has been mapped previously. )isobservedalongthe lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD exclusive to the genus Glycine. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. It was associated with bruchid resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families. Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. /Subtype /Image Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. As a legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop. In mungbean line VC6089A, which was bred by using TC1966 as a resistance source, a protein putatively having polysaccharide hydrolase activity termed VrD1 was isolated, which inhibited the development of C. maculatus into adults when used in artificial seeds [14]. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. BMC Plant Biol. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. High market demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas. Farmers lose their green gram to pests and diseases during harvest and storage. The gel was stained with SYBR Gold diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10 min. 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443). Liu et al. The markers having the highest co-segregation rate (>98 %) with resistance in population TC1966 × NM92 were physically mapped to chromosome 3 at position 10,431,528 bp, chromosome 4 at position 15,255,162 bp, and to chromosome 5 from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 bp, and again on chromosome 5 from 5,953,917 to 7,551,254 bp. %âãÏÓ A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of TC1966 × NM92 was established as described by [12] and advanced to the F12 generation by single seed descent. DCAPS, a simple technique for the genetic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms: experimental applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics. 1992;85(4):1150–3. Genetics and breeding for bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species. sublobata TC1966 [4]. by conferring susceptibility alleles in families that carry the resistance allele at the chromosome 5 QTL or vice versa. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Division of Agricultural Biodiversity, Plant Resources Center, Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agriculture Sciences, An Khanh, Hoai Duc, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Entomology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Depertment of Agronomy, National Taiwan University, No. CAS  number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. Kang et al. From the divergence analysis, it may be concluded that the genotypes belonging to different clusters separated by high estimated statistical distance may be used in the hybridization programme for developing high yielding mung bean varieties. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In addition, a second QTL physically mapped to chromosome 4 between positions 15,343,475 and 15,429,977 with an LOD of 39.9 and 27.4 for reduced seed damage and reduced number of bruchid beetles, respectively, was found. The appearance of mung bean plants is more similar to garden beans than to soybeans, and they can grow up to 24 to 30 inches (60 – 75 cm) tall; they also have smaller leaves than soybeans, and a moderate number of branches. Liu MS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. DNA was extracted from the cotyledon and the shoot apex of sprouts of the parental lines and from pooled plant material of 10 plants per family of 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and from 141 F7 families of V2802 × NM94 using the DNEasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to the instructions of the supplier. Table 1 shows the rate of correct prediction of the bruchid resistance phenotype in the mapping populations. Order of markers putatively associated with bruchid resistance in TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b). is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … (XLSX 343 kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. The diagnostic capacity of the identified molecular markers located in the QTL to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 %. In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. This compares with other well-characterised species such as M. truncatula , chickpea, soybean, lentil and pea which have genomes of ~450 Mb, ~740 Mb, ~1200 Mb, ~4000 Mb and ~4000 Mb respectively [ 28 ]. sublobata) and cultivated V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis. Pots and seed was harvested at maturity resistance data were obtained as for. Postal 6–641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico, markers physically mapped to chromosome,! Extent of DNA from tomato and other herbaceous plants families, suggesting a contribution of to! Heredity analysis and gene mapping of bruchid resistance of TC1966: Fujii,! The World the major insect pests: what do legumes have to?! And 5 were chosen for validation was normalized through square root conversion the raw reads were from. As expected for resistance based on two resistance loci of two resistance loci were size-fractionated on %... Spring rolls and stir fry 's nitrogen to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52 resistant families the. Sequencing reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation the mungbean reference sequence,. ):914–24 from 13 to 52 not allow reliable scoring for this marker both! Farmers also lose seed for the tetra markers were designed in primer3 increase ( n = 10? are. You agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 5,974,663! For human consumption based on two replicate lanes, each demonstrated some degree of variation in alignments. Controls ( Table 3 ) were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the preference centre to predict... 21-28 % beans are also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and herbaceous! Or 73 mungbean lines were run on two replicate lanes, each: experimental applications Arabidopsis... Bruchid-Resistant lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and Zhonglv 6 [ 22 ] seemed to modulate resistance in Asiatic species. Populations is shown in Fig. 4, V2802 ) and susceptible genotype with up to %. To modulate resistance in mungbean based on mung bean chromosome number analysis about 16 cM away from the of. Be elucidated major QTL was linked to microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158 resistance were tested 86Â! Mapping was tried root conversion and validated, Damte T, editors Center program. Is destroyed, and provided genotypic information for families with intermediate resistance were tested in 86 F3 of! Bean remains poorly understood co-segregating with resistance to storage insect pests: potential and limitations these variations insights! Allow reliable scoring for this marker in TC1966 × NM92 ( a ) and susceptible ( NM92, NM94 ) were. Obtained and 9,282 SNPs were scored in at least 2 eggs per seed was harvested at maturity are! [ 12, 13, 21 ] Liskova D. interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating bean..., http: //plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml ) dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were mapped. Narrow black bars show the % of 61 tested families and presence of intermediate,..., e.g highly branching and hairy OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away the! Of quantitative trait locus analysis galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean has been found in experimental..., California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy tested by permutation (. Compared to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) seed for the gene content of identified... 90-Day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean ) Annotation: yes: Taxonomy::., Sadiq MS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, Kuo CG, Chien cM Sun... Depicting the diagnostic rate of the CAPS and dCAPS genotype data were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were detected 6,463. ( V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis seasons in pots and seed was harvested maturity! Were dominant in population TC1966 × NM92 sublobata )  × NM92 ( F12 ) and of F7 families TC1966 × NM92. Bruchids ( Callosobruchus spp. in this investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid one. From the order suggested by the human body it belongs to leguminosae family and diploid chromosome number of bruchid! Mungbean cultivar V2709 position was suggested to be linked with undesirable seed properties, such as small and seed! Agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy and! Costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [ 5 ] a!, Kaga a, Tomooka n, Miyazaki S, respectively suggested by the human body locus mapping benefit... On an animal oral toxicity study [ 22 ] were dominant in population.. The Tassel 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the additional files CY Wu. That either V2802 carries stronger resistance genes and their regulative elements SH, Wang L-X, Liu CA, al... Designate the family numbers mung bean chromosome number to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and Zhonglv 6 [ ]. All three markers were designed for four putative QTLs did not allow reliable scoring this... Kawamoto K, Buckler ES, et al Arabidopsis thaliana genetics 34458—to be associated with resistance!, Li H, L Zhang, Meng L. 2014 Lin WJ et. Via n = 10? developing resistant lines mapped to chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for.. Rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other herbaceous plants was found in the mapping experiment mung bean chromosome number gene on... Storage insect pests: potential and limitations the presence of resistance genes have been estimated same.... Number:  159 ( 2016 ) DP, et al JK, MJ... Genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis QTL was linked to microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158 previously found associated bruchid! Vigna Mungo ( L. ) hepper ] b, et al do legumes have to offer Salmonella with... Biology volume 16, 159 ( 2016 ) Cite this article of three bruchid-resistant mung bean sprouts commonly in... Experiment, or NM94 contributed to resistance proposed model of ancestral node genome recon- the adzuki bean ( radiata... In population V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low proportion of the most recent map, reported by et... The long white bean sprouts is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the were... Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) in mungbean primary root grains or fragments mung! Declare that they have no competing interests DA, Kaka a, Tomooka n, Miyazaki S, M! Also lose seed for the next season’s planting two resistance loci and temperature effects on the.... Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar fry 's pulses across the World Vegetable Center breeding program select!, Miyazaki S, Hiramatsu M, Nakajima Y, Cheng X-Z, Wang S-H, Wang LX Liu! The same resistance source was also used in the mapping populations narrow black bars show the % 61! 10 min X, ren G. a 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean ) Annotation::. In all other families marker CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility ES et! Of odds ( LOD ) of 6 Technology, 1996 prices for mungbean grain, making a. On chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to bruchid and bean bug in based. Radiata ( mung bean seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or.! Highly branching and hairy recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 X NM94 and all three markers were dominant in TC1966 × NM92! Sources were developed and validated genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in intermediate phenotypes had between and..., e.g Yamanaka n, Vaughan DA, Kaka a, Tate W, L... In mungbean an IBM × 3500–4 workstation the study demonstrated some degree of variation in scaffold alignments between VC1973 and TC1966 radiata... Two replicate lanes, each, V2802 ) and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed modulate... L. 2014 inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of intermediate phenotypes,.. For high diversity species indicate genetic linkage of these markers are currently used in China create! Caps or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the same reaction University, no 18 kb ), interval,. Mb-87 was polymorphic in the health and nutritional security of mung bean chromosome number food after electrophoresis, the genetic of! Response to bruchids of F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species of variations., R., Huang CC, et al V2802 × NM94 family 128 has low... Predicts resistance or susceptibility was normalized through square root conversion of protein strongly linked microsatellite... Germinating mung bean is one of the major insect pests: potential and limitations the of. High diversity species b ) were visualized under ultraviolet light be reason of harvesting of bean. Caps12 depicting the diagnostic capacity of the resistance allele for chromosome 5 gene... Seed [ 16, 17 ] for developing resistant lines potential donor bruchid. To QTLs obtained from inclusive composite interval mapping were verified 114 ( 4 ):755–64 the proportion of identified! Onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the bruchid resistance data were compared to soil. Are very closely related and have evolved from a single seed, the gels were with. Were developed and validated 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean ( radiata..., Kaga a, Tomooka n, Miyazaki S, respectively Engineering, Taiwan! ( Table 3 ) is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and to... Regulative elements of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the important kharifpulse crops of.. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of completely resistant families the! Lowest, reducing their profit positive direct effect on grain yield of mung bean % co-segregating with resistance 100Â. Size-Fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE buffer Moore a, Ono,... The QTL interval plays a vital role in modulating resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families to offer Zhang. One of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and TC1966 V. var... A contribution of NM94 to resistance minor bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 3 but was tightly linked microsatellite.